■ 과업명
사회적 가치 실현을 위한 지역사회 공동체의 과제 연구용역

■ 발주처
안산시 마을만들기 지원센터, 희망마을사업추진단

■ 과업기간
2019. 6. 12. ~ 11. 8.

■ 과업목적
– 4.16 세월호 참사 이후 국비 지원을 통해 1단계 ‘안산시 공동체 회복 프로그램(2017~19)을 3년간 운영한 현시점에서 그간 성과를 평가하고 2단계 공동체 회복 프로그램(2020~22)의 필요성을 확인함
– 1단계 프로그램 평가에 기초해 향후 지역 공동체의 사회적 가치 실현방안 및 프로그램의 지속성 확보 근거를 마련
– 공동체 회복 프로그램을 평가할 수 있는 핵심 평가 기준을 도출함으로써 사회적 성과 확산 기반을 마련
– 사회적 가치 실현을 위한 안산시 지역 공동체 회복 프로그램의 과제 제시(2020~22)

■ 목차

제1장. 연구개요
1. 연구 배경 및 목적 ··············································································································· 3
1) 연구 배경 ··························································································································· 3
2) 연구 목적 ··························································································································· 3
2. 연구 범위 ······························································································································· 4
1) 시간적 범위 ······················································································································· 4
2) 공간적 범위 및 대상 ······································································································· 4
3) 내용적 범위 ······················································································································· 4
3. 연구 추진과정 ······················································································································· 5
1) 연구 방법 ··························································································································· 5
2) 추진 일정 ··························································································································· 5
3) 참여 연구진 ······················································································································· 6

제2장. 사회적 가치와 공동체 프로그램
1. 사회적 가치 개념 ················································································································· 9
1) 사회적 가치의 등장 배경 ································································································ 9
2) 사회적 가치의 개념과 내용 ·························································································· 12
2. 사회적 가치 실현과 공동체 회복(리질리언스) ······························································ 16
1) 리질리언스(회복력; Resilience) 개념 및 의미 ························································· 16
2) 리질리언스와 사회적 가치 그리고 공동체 ································································ 18
3. 국내외 공동체 회복(프로그램) 사례 조사 ······································································ 22
1) 태안군 사회자본 축적에 따른 공동체 회복 ······························································ 22
2) 일본 시민협력형 재난대응 체계 ·················································································· 23
3) 미국 트라우마 극복을 위한 장기적 지원 및 커뮤니티 회복 ································· 27
4) 노르웨이 집단적 성찰과 애도를 통한 회복 ······························································ 29
4. 요약 및 시사점 ··················································································································· 31
1) 시대적 위기에 대한 대응으로서 사회적 가치와 리질리언스 이론 ······················· 31
2) 공동체 활동의 지향으로서 ‘사회적 가치’ ·································································· 31
3) 리질리언스에 기초한 공동체 위기 대응 ···································································· 31
4) 시민협력을 통한 위기 극복 ·························································································· 32
5) 갈등관리를 위한 주민 간 사회자본 축적 필요 ························································ 32
6) 트라우마 치유를 위한 장기적, 집단적 접근 ····························································· 33
7) 예방적 재난 대응 체계 마련 필요 ·············································································· 33
8) 지방정부 수준의 재난 회복력 구축 ·········································································· 34

제3장. 2단계 공동체 회복 프로그램
1. 공동체 회복 프로그램 연장 배경 ···················································································· 37
1) 연장 개요 ························································································································· 37
2. 2단계 프로그램 운영계획 ································································································· 39
1) 주요 현안 및 비전 ········································································································· 39
2) 운영방안 및 연도별 핵심 방향 ···················································································· 39
3) 추진체계 ··························································································································· 41
4) 사업비 ······························································································································· 42
5) 추진일정 ··························································································································· 43
3. 연도별 세부 운영계획(2020~2022) ················································································· 44
1) [2020년] 재난지역 공동체 회복을 위한 특화된 주체 발굴 ··································· 44
2) [2021년] 재난극복 공동체 회복모델 정립 및 대외확산 시도 ······························· 51
3) [2022년] 대외적 가치 창출을 위한 교류협력 활동증진 ········································· 52
4. 요약 및 시사점(1단계 프로그램 5대 방향성 기반 비교) ············································ 54
1) 자생력 확보 및 성과 확산 초점. ‘지원방식의 다양화’는 고민 지점 ···················· 54
2) 공동체 회복 전문가 양성 교육. 세월호 가치확산 조직 지원 ································ 54
3) 콘텐츠 확산 위한 온라인 플랫폼 구축. 타 재난 지역과 교류 ······························ 54
4) 소셜리빙랩 통해 지역 문제해결 주체로서 청년·청소년 역량 강화 ······················ 55
5) 유가족-주민 소통 기반 공동체 치유회복 프로그램 운영 단체 지원 ···················· 55
6) 지속가능한 공동체 집중 지원… 재난극복 공동체 회복 모델 정립 ······················ 56

제4장. 2단계 공동체 회복 프로그램 방향 도출 설문
1. 조사 개요 ····························································································································· 59
1) 대상 ··································································································································· 59
2) 응답자 수 ························································································································· 59
3) 기간 ··································································································································· 59
4) 방법 ··································································································································· 59
5) 항목 및 내용 ··················································································································· 59
2. 조사결과 및 분석 ··············································································································· 61
1) 2단계 프로그램에 대한 참여주민 인식조사 ······························································ 61
2) 2단계 프로그램에 대한 활동가 인식조사 ·································································· 92
3) 주체 간 비교 ················································································································· 119
3. 요약 및 시사점 ················································································································· 134
1) 2단계 필요성 : 주민 ’만남·교류 확대‘ – 활동가 ’공동체 자립기반 마련‘ ········ 134
2) 2020 ’사회적기업 육성‘, 2021 ’공동체 모델화‘, 2022 ‘국제관계 확충’ ··········· 134
3) ‘다양한 주민참여 문화 프로그램 확대‘ · ‘지속력 확보’ 공감 ····························· 135
4) 평가지표 핵심기준 Top 2 : ‘주민의 참여’, ‘주민 상호 간 협력’ ······················· 135

제5장. 심층인터뷰
1. 인터뷰 개요 ······················································································································· 139
1) 대상 ································································································································ 139
2) 기간 ································································································································ 139
3) 방법 ································································································································ 139
4) 주요 내용 ······················································································································· 139
2. 인터뷰 결과 ······················································································································· 140
1) 1단계 공동체 회복 프로그램 성과 ··········································································· 140
2) 1단계 공동체 회복 프로그램 한계 ········································································· 141
3) 2단계 프로그램 전환 적절성 ··················································································· 142
4) 2단계 프로그램 연도별 목표 평가 ··········································································· 144
5) 2단계 프로그램 추진방식 ························································································· 148
6) 실행 및 유관 기관 간 관계 설정 ············································································ 150
7) 2단계 프로그램 불안요소 ··························································································· 152
8) 공동체 회복 프로그램 성과평가 기준 ······································································ 153
3. 요약 및 시사점 ················································································································· 156
1) [1단계] 재난 지역, 공동체 통한 회복 시도 ‘긍정’…주체 발굴 ‘회의적’ ············ 156
2) “2단계 전환, 시기적 적절성과 별개로 1단계 활동 평가 계기 삼아야” ············ 156
3) ‘가시적 성과 중심’… 세월호 가치·피해지역 집중해 사회적 가치 발신 ············· 156
4) 주민자치기구 적극 활용 · 유관기관 간 협력체계 상설화 ‘공감’ ····················· 157
5) 2020 총선 ‘세월호 정치 쟁점화’ 재발로 인한 악영향 우려 ····························· 157
6) “결과에 대한 정량평가, 과정과 질에 대한 정성평가 필요” ································ 158

제6장. 공동체 회복 프로그램 방향성 및 평가지표 핵심기준 도출
1. 평가지표 핵심기준 도출 ································································································· 161
1) 공동체 회복 프로그램 평가지표 ················································································ 161
2) 평가지표 핵심기준 도출 ····························································································· 170
2. 1단계 프로그램 평가 적용 ····························································································· 178
1) 공동체 회복 프로그램 평가지표 적용 방식 및 필요성 ········································· 178
2) 사업 유형별 평가지표 적용 ······················································································· 178
3. 2단계 프로그램 방향성 및 과제 ··················································································· 181
1) 피해당사자-주민 간 교류 프로그램 활성화 ···························································· 181
2) ‘안산형’ 사회적 가치 실현 ························································································· 181
3) 공동체 회복 프로그램 평가지표 개발, 모델 확산 기반조성 ································ 183

참고 문헌
부록

■ 연구진
정창기 대안연구센터 센터장
김현수 대안연구센터 연구원
이다현 대안연구센터 연구원
허웅 대안연구센터 연구원

■ 펴낸 날
2019. 11.

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